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Java Volatile Keyword Explained by Example


volatile is probably the less known/understood/documented keyword in Java. I have recently read an article on one of my favourite blog about the volatile keyword. The author shows a piece of code where the volatile keyword seems to have an influence. This example was not easy to understand and the role of the volatile keyword on the behaviour of the JVM was not really defined. So I have decided to browse the web to find a better code example for the volatile keyword. After one hour, nothing! Only wrong examples, articles comparing volatile with synchronized and other confused examples where the author seems as lost as the reader…

Basic Example

The following show a basic example where volatile is required

public class VolatileTest {
    private static final Logger LOGGER = MyLoggerFactory.getSimplestLogger();

    private static volatile int MY_INT = 0;

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new ChangeListener().start();
        new ChangeMaker().start();

    static class ChangeListener extends Thread {
        public void run() {
            int local_value = MY_INT;
            while ( local_value < 5){
                if( local_value!= MY_INT){
                    LOGGER.log(Level.INFO,"Got Change for MY_INT : {0}", MY_INT);
                     local_value= MY_INT;

    static class ChangeMaker extends Thread{
        public void run() {

            int local_value = MY_INT;
            while (MY_INT <5){
                LOGGER.log(Level.INFO, "Incrementing MY_INT to {0}", local_value+1);
                MY_INT = ++local_value;
                try {
                } catch (InterruptedException e) { e.printStackTrace(); }

With the volatile keyword the output is :

Incrementing MY_INT to 1<br>Got Change for MY_INT : 1<br>Incrementing MY_INT to 2<br>Got Change for MY_INT : 2<br>Incrementing MY_INT to 3<br>Got Change for MY_INT : 3<br>Incrementing MY_INT to 4<br>Got Change for MY_INT : 4<br>Incrementing MY_INT to 5<br>Got Change for MY_INT : 5 

Without the volatile keyword the output is :

Incrementing MY_INT to 1
Incrementing MY_INT to 2
Incrementing MY_INT to 3
Incrementing MY_INT to 4
Incrementing MY_INT to 5

…..And the change listener loop infinitely… 


So what happens? Each thread has its own stack, and so its own copy of variables it can access. When the thread is created, it copies the value of all accessible variables in its own memory. The volatile keyword is used to say to the jvm “Warning, this variable may be modified in an other Thread”. Without this keyword the JVM is free to make some optimizations, like never refreshing those local copies in some threads. The volatile force the thread to update the original variable for each variable. The volatile keyword could be used on every kind of variable, either primitive or objects! Maybe the subject of another article, more detailed…

Never used volatile and never met this problem…

Like all threads issues, it happens under specials circumstances. Really special for this one… My example has big chances to show mainly because the ChangeListener thread is busy, thanks to the loop, and the JVM consider that this thread has no time for updating the local variables. Executing some synchronized methods or adding an other variable which is volatile (or even executing some simple lines of code) could modify the JVM behavior and “correct” this problem…

Should I do a big refactor to identify all variables who needs volatile?

 Be pragmatic! If you think your project needs it, do it. I think that the essential is to be aware of that, to know what is the goal of each keyword of the java language in order to take the good decisions.

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